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Workers from monospecific colonies of F. In relation to slave rebellions within laboratory mixed colonies of Protomognathus americanus and their Temnothorax slaves, Achenbach et al. As a consequence, mixed colonies of F.

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Moreover, the ratios of natural slaves in F. Trager stressed the importance of that fact in his online statement: These peculiar raids were starting identically as regular raids see e. Formicafusca slaves from colonies of P. These experiments were carried out in Poland and Finland in the years — As demonstrated for the facultative slave-maker Formica subnuda a Nearctic blood-red ant and its slaves F. It is puzzling that no F. Workers from monospecific colonies of F.

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Out of these two slave species, L. However, evidence that slaves may act also in favour of their own maternal population by engaging in various forms of the so-called slave rebellions is already quite extensive and may be found in both old and recent myrmecological literature, although, unfortunately, these data are often neglected or overlooked. This comment is most probably based on published cases of direct aggression between P. However, such hostile encounters always occurred as single events and never took on a form of a mass slave revolt. Cool-Kwait and Topoff, ; Polyergus rufescens: In the case of obligate slavery, presence of slaves is angeschaltet essential condition for the survival of the colony, as abilities of enslaver workers to carry out everyday tasks are usually highly restricted, among others due to morphological and functional limitations e.


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